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The last decades have led to tangible progress in medicine and science, but the health of mankind as a whole has not changed. For the elderly, there are more and more new diseases. It seems that scientists are struggling with the treatment of some invincible misfortune, and at this time nature throws up more and more new tasks, as if offended by the inattention to her.
Allergy is rightly considered the leader in the number of new forms. The basis of most allergic reactions are immune processes, which are activated when any objectionable microorganism or substance enters the body. Thus, there are a great many factors for the appearance of allergies. The traditional agents of disease are viruses, drugs, bacteria, pollen, wool, and food.
However, in the 20th century, elements such as plastics, synthetic cosmetics, artificial building materials and even radio waves were added to them. Today, more and more allergens are being identified, it has already become so commonplace that it does not surprise anyone. However, sometimes even doctors are surprised at the results and manifestations, because allergy is an increased sensitivity to certain substances, which manifests itself in the form of unusual reactions to them.
Allergy manifests itself in different ways. These can be prolonged and exhausting bouts of sneezing, with nasal discharge, there may be tearing and itching in the eyelids and nasopharynx, as well as on the skin. A rapidly developing allergic reaction can even lead to anaphylactic shock. Considering the fact that a disease can happen to anyone and at any time, here are some of the most famous allergic reactions to quite common objects.
Allergy to the sun. Spring is coming, followed by summer. People naturally tend to warm up and sunbathe. Just what to do for those who do not have a beautiful tan, but redness, irritation, or even blisters? Allergy to the sun is very common and is found in more and more people. The reason for the appearance of such a reaction (solar dermatitis or photodermatitis) is exposure to sunlight on the exposed skin of a person. By themselves, they are not allergens, and irritation can occur either due to external or internal factors. External factors include allergenic substances that gradually accumulate on the surface of the skin. It can be pollen from flowering plants, cosmetics or medicinal products, essential oils. They are exposed to the sun and cause an allergic reaction on exposed skin. Internal causes are usually diseases and disorders of the immune system, as well as the consequences of taking certain medications. All this leads to an increase in the sensitivity of the skin to the sun, which increases its vulnerability. The combination of ultraviolet light and drugs can become extremely dangerous, causing severe allergies. Its symptoms are similar to a common skin reaction - exposure to the sun leads to skin reddening, burning and itching. Those areas of the skin that have been exposed develop a rash similar to hives. Allergy to the sun can also manifest itself in the form of edema of the mucous membranes and skin in general. Interestingly, sun allergies can also show up in tanning beds. Those who want to give their skin a summer bronze tan go there in the cold season. However, fake tanning as an unpleasant companion can also be allergic to tanning beds. The symptoms of the disease are similar to photodermatitis, so the question of the benefits or harms of a tanning bed remains open.
Allergy to water. Everyone knows that water is life. It is all the more surprising to hear that there are those who are allergic to water. Usually, the disease occurs with a sharp drop in water temperature and usually manifests itself in residents of Africa, India and other countries with hot climates. These people have limited access to fluids, as a result, their skin weaned from constant moisture. When cold or hot water gets on it, red spots, rashes and even microburns begin to appear on the body. Water brings peculiar problems to the body that has become unaccustomed from it. Similar, but weaker manifestations can occur with prolonged bathing in warm water. Small spots are then formed on the skin, which begin to itch and look like irritation. Although this type of allergy is quite rare, there have been no fatal outcomes from it, although in India there have been cases of instant burns from contact with water. Until now, scientists are unclear about the true reasons for such a strange effect of moisture on the human body. There is a known case of a young Australian woman Ashley Morris, who received such an allergy after falling ill with angina in childhood. The doctors prescribed drugs for her, which included a lot of penicillin. Soon, the girl discovered that after taking a bath, a bright red rash appeared on her body. Dermatologists determined that the drugs changed the amount of histamine in the blood, which led to a dysregulation of functions. Now any touch of water causes an itchy rash and peeling in the girl. She can't even walk down the street, as the sweat that comes out immediately triggers a skin reaction. But even in such a situation, Ashley finds her advantages - she never has to wash and wash dishes.
Allergy to alcohol. The very word "allergy" conjures up pictures of dust, wool, citrus fruits and more. However, there are people in nature who have a reaction to alcohol. It manifests itself in redness of the arms, face and trunk. The skin gets rashes and itching, a runny nose attacks a person, and even suffocation may appear in especially severe cases. In the case of having such reactions, it is better not to limit the intake of such alcohol, but to refuse it altogether. And it is not at all as hard as it seems. The most common red wine intolerance is found in 10-15% of people. However, the allergy is most often caused not by the alcohol itself, but by the polyphenolic compounds that are in it (most often in the same wine). So it turns out that there is practically no allergy to vodka. What's more, alcohol has been shown to reduce the allergenic properties of other foods. French doctors even recommend drinking strawberries with wine for those people who are allergic to them. In this case, it is recommended to choose natural white or red varieties of the drink, which should be allowed to stand for a while before use. It is argued that this will help avoid unwanted consequences.
Allergy to cow's milk. Milk contains about 20 different proteins, including 4 major allergens. The most significant of these are alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and casein. The latter is 80% milk proteins, it contains 5 subfractions, of which alpha-casein and alpha-es-casein are notable. Since casein is not a part of species-specific proteins, an allergy to it may be accompanied by an increase in sensitivity to cheeses and other dairy products of animals. The fact is that these substances also contain casein. 10% of all milk proteins are beta-lactoglobulins, which are found in the milk of all animals, and alpha-lactalbumin accounts for 5% of milk proteins. This allergen is also species-specific, allergy to it can be accompanied by a cross-reaction to proteins of cow meat. Another important milk protein is lipoprotein, it is much less active than the previously listed ones, but is responsible for the occurrence of reactions to butter. That is why it is important to remember that condensed and powdered milk contains all the same milk antigens, they are also present in products that are prepared with its use. In other words, allergies to dairy products can also occur with the consumption of white bread, ice cream, buns, mayonnaise, chocolate, and so on. It happens that patients have an isolated allergy to cheese, but there are no reactions to milk. Then we can talk about increased sensitivity not to milk proteins, but to molds used in the production of cheese. In general, milk allergy is most common in children, and it usually manifests itself and begins with the introduction of complementary foods. This is especially clearly expressed in the presence of an allergy to beta-lactoglobulins. Usually, significant allergic manifestations are manifested in diarrhea and vomiting, but the exclusion of cow's milk from the diet at all can quickly lead to a significant improvement in the child's condition. By the second year of life, in addition, the baby may experience spontaneous recovery associated with the maturation of the digestive system and their protective mechanisms. In adults, true allergic reactions to milk are extremely rare, while poor milk tolerance is associated with a lack of enzymes that break down proteins. The activity of such substances decreases after human puberty. Interestingly, half of people with this type of allergy develop an immediate reaction, which is caused by immunoglobulin E and manifests itself in a violation of various body functions. This manifests itself in digestive disorders (diarrhea, vomiting, nausea), allergic skin reactions, allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. The other half of the patients have a delayed-type reaction, its symptoms are associated exclusively with the gastrointestinal tract.
Allergy to fish. This type of disease occurs quite often, especially in those countries and areas where food is a traditional food. About a third of patients are selectively allergic to one of the types of fish, while the rest experience undesirable reactions to many species at once. At the same time, sea fish are more allergic than fresh, and heat treatment cannot destroy allergens at all. In those rooms where fish is cooked, its antigens are abundantly contained in the air, which leads to the formation of fish distillate. This, in turn, contributes to the ingestion of allergens into the human body by inhalation. Caviar is also a strong allergen, but fish oil usually does not cause reactions, it only affects people with high sensitivity to this type of allergens. It is worth mentioning that the human body can react most strongly to crabs, crayfish, lobsters and shrimps. If you are allergic to crustaceans, then you should be wary of inhaled allergens from daphnia, which are used as food for the inhabitants of the aquarium.
Allergy to vegetables and fruits. This type of reaction can be triggered by many vegetables and fruits from plant families. Tomatoes, all citrus fruits, bananas, carrots, peaches, garlic and onions most often lead to the appearance of pseudo-allergic and allergic reactions. It is curious that the prevalence of allergies to such foods may be due to climatic and geographical features. For example, people over the age of 10 are more likely to be allergic to peaches in the United States than anywhere else. Recently, there has been a reaction to representatives of the laurel family. The most famous of the fruits of this group is avocado; do not forget the numerous spices and herbs: laurel leaves, cassia, cinnamon. Interestingly, there are structural similarities between avocado, banana, and latex antigens. The sap of rubber plants, usually Brazilian hevea, is used to prepare a group of foods, from rubber products to chewing gum. Although latex allergies have their own characteristics, it is worth noting that antigenic crosshairs can lead to a reaction to rubber when consuming products of the laurel family, especially avocados. That is, having tasted such a fruit, you can get a rash from wearing hitherto unremarkable rubber gloves. As a result, the most allergenic fruits are pears, apples, stone fruits (peach, cherries, apricots, etc.), as well as walnuts, almonds, peanuts and chestnuts. Vegetables include tomatoes, spinach, celery and parsley. Sometimes even simple storage or cutting of kiwi fruit can cause a generalized reaction in those with hypersensitivity. Almost always, vegetable and fruit allergy is inextricably linked to plant pollen allergy. It is noted that half of those who are allergic to apple pollen are also allergic to apples themselves. However, the allergens of vegetables and fruits do not tolerate temperature well, so they are destroyed during cooking.
Allergy to humans. You can often hear one person tell another that he is allergic to that, thus expressing his irritation. However, it turned out that such a statement has a scientific basis, the symptoms of such irritation require the intervention of not psychologists, but doctors. In particular, it was found that the smell of a person, or rather his sweat, causes allergies. Moreover, this statement applies most often to male smells. For the first time, such reactions were recorded in the middle of the twentieth century. But then it was considered something unusual, since the ecological situation was quite stable and nothing indicated that there were any prerequisites for the formation of side reactions of the body to the smell of sweat. But recently, cases of women's reactions to men's sweat have become more frequent. Scientists believe that this is due to the general increase in the number of allergic diseases and the increased qualifications of allergists. Such allergies are accompanied by asthma attacks, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, swelling, skin rashes and itching, and even loss of consciousness and circulatory disorders in the brain. Like any form of allergy, this one can intensify over time and turn into more severe forms, the treatment of which will already be complicated.
Allergy to medicines. A person can also react to medications and medications, which is a specific response of the immune system to these drugs. This type of allergy arises as a complication in the treatment of any disease, as well as an occupational disease inherent in people who have been working with medicines for a long time. This applies to pharmacists and healthcare professionals in general. Statistics say that in the urban environment, drug allergies are most common in women between the ages of 30 and 40. This disease can occur for several reasons. These can be both hereditary factors and the presence of other types of allergies, it is possible that long-term medication is to blame, and possibly the simultaneous administration of several drugs at once. Often a reaction to medications is associated with an overdose from them, such a reaction is called pseudo-allergic. It is now known that almost any drug can cause allergic reactions. The most common causes of allergies are antibiotics, local anesthetics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Once manifested, a drug allergy will occur again and again with each subsequent intake of the drug. This type of reaction is characterized by the following symptoms: the skin begins to redden and itch, rashes appear.The reaction time to medications varies from a few seconds to 12 hours, while severe reactions such as urticaria, an attack of bronchial asthma and Quincke's edema are possible. The appearance of an allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis is also possible. Anaphylactic shock, which is caused by a sharp drop in blood pressure, is considered the most severe manifestation of such an allergy. In the course of this shock, the person can lose consciousness and die. Research is essential to understand the true causes of drug allergies. With the help of an allergist, a series of diagnostic tests are performed to determine the patient's tolerance to certain medications. Then the specialist gives the necessary recommendations about which of the prescribed funds can actually be used. To protect yourself from drug allergies, remember the following:
1. The name of the drug that caused the allergy must be remembered or written down.
2. It is necessary to inform doctors about your reaction to certain medications.
3. The use of an unfamiliar remedy must first be agreed with a doctor.
Allergy to objects of progress. Today around us is full of objects that are the achievements of progress. We carry a mobile phone and a laptop with us, a TV is waiting for us at home, and a microwave in the kitchen. All these devices make our life much easier. But in some people, the creations of progress cause allergies. There have been cases where a couple of hours of work at the computer was enough to trigger an allergic attack. And this phenomenon has its own scientific explanation. The fact is that about 15% of people are highly susceptible to magnetic fields. Most likely, there are people with supersensitivity. All equipment working around - a satellite dish, TV, computer, is a source of an electromagnetic field. And wireless communication devices - bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and the same mobile phone not only emit waves, but also create their own field. A complex broadband signal is unlikely to cause an allergy for the average person, but for an allergy sufferer it can cause an attack. In developed countries, radio signals permeate literally everything; wireless Internet is available everywhere. But allergy sufferers have a hard time living from this. Not surprisingly, there have been cases of allergy sufferers protesting against wireless Internet in America. In Sweden, citizens with increased sensitivity to electromagnetic fields are even relocated to sanatoriums at the expense of the state. Despite the weak spread of such allergies, the main thing that doctors call for in this case is not to panic. This allergy, like others, is treated, and quite successfully.
Allergy to meat. Meat allergens are species-specific, their effect is noticeably reduced during heat treatment. Always the most allergenic meat was considered chicken (including chicken) and pork. But the number of reactions to beef and lamb is noticeably less, but rabbit meat is the most neutral in this aspect. Recently, scientists have found that meat allergies are not as rare as they once thought. The reaction is caused by the substance alpha-galactose, which is contained in this product. It is found in the body of mammals, causing the production of antibodies in humans. The reaction can follow 5-6 hours after eating, even anaphylactic shock is possible.