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Handball (from German hand - "hand" and ball - "ball") is a team game with a ball. For the game, a round inflatable ball is used, the size of which is 58-60 cm in circumference for men and 54-56 cm for women. Ball weight - from 425 to 475 g (for men's teams) or from 325 to 375 g (for women's teams).
The game consists of two halves of 30 minutes each with a break of 10 minutes between them. The goal of the competition is to throw the maximum possible number of balls into the opponent's goal, trying not to step beyond the line that limits the 6-meter space in front of the goal. The initial throw is from the center of the court in any direction. The actions of the players are evaluated by two judges.
According to scientists, games like handball were known in ancient times. Mentions about them can be found in Homer's Odyssey, in the treatises of the ancient physician Claudius Galen, and in the poems of the famous minnesinger Walter von der Vogelweide.
Some researchers argue that modern handball was created by Danish footballers around the end of the 19th or the beginning of the 20th century, so as not to interrupt training even in winter. The game, held indoors, involved 6 players and a goalkeeper, and the ball was to be passed only by hand.
And in 1890, a ball game called "hazena" (from the Czech "throw", "throw"), which boiled down to unregulated throwing and catching the ball, was quite popular in the Czech Republic. However, the official date of the origin of handball is considered to be 1898 - it was then that in one of the real schools in the Danish city of Ordrup, physical education teacher Holger Nielsen offered his pupils a new type of ball game - "handball" (from German hand - "hand" and ball - "ball ").
Nearly 20 years later - in 1917 - Berliner Max Heizer combined the merits of the two games mentioned above to create handball. After 3 years, the first games for the Cup and the German championship in handball took place, and in 1926 handball was recognized as an international sport. The International Amateur Handball Federation (IAGF), which included 11 countries, was founded in 1928 in Amsterdam (existed until 1944), in 1936 handball was recognized as an Olympic sport, and is included in the program of the XI Olympiad in Berlin. The International Handball Federation, established in 1946, approved a program for the development of this sport, outlined the dates for the world championships with the participation of men's and women's teams.
The number of players in a handball team at all times was 7x7. This is not entirely true. At first, the teams really consisted of seven players, but in 1946 the International Handball Federation approved the holding of the world championships in this sport with the participation of men's and women's teams 11x11. Later, the World Handball Championships were held every 4 years, until 1966, when the last 11x11 World Handball Championship was held. Nowadays, handball in the 7x7 format firmly holds the palm in all major competitions.
In the beginning, only women played handball. This sport was indeed created specifically for women, but at the 1936 Olympics (Berlin), only men's teams participated in handball competitions. Women's teams were able to take part in the Olympics only in 1976 (Montreal).
First, the European handball championships were held, and only then the world championships. This is not true. The world championships in this sport have been held since 1936 (for men) and since 1976 (for women). And the European Championships for men's and women's teams were first held in 1994, and since then have been held regularly every two years under the auspices of the European Handball Federation (EHF).
They play handball only in the hall. In fact, there is a variation of this sport - beach handball. The name speaks for itself - this type of game takes place in the open air, sometimes on the shore of a reservoir or on a sports ground.
Beach handball is just fun. Indeed, in the last century there were no national teams for this sport. However, the outdoor game is rapidly developing, gaining more and more fans and, according to experts, has every chance to be included in the Olympics program soon.
Handball rules were developed in 1896. New competition rules (reducing the size of the ball, the introduction of the rules of "three steps" and "three seconds") were developed only in 1923, 3 years after the handball competitions held in Berlin. The above-mentioned innovations, according to experts, contributed to the improvement of the playing technique.
Russia only learned about handball after the revolution. Misconception. The ancestor of the national handball, the Czech hazen, appeared in Kharkov in 1909, and was actively cultivated as one of the types of gymnastic games in the Sokol society. And in 1914, Dr. E.F. Mali developed quite detailed and clear rules of handball, and many of them were used to create the international rules of this sport. In fact, it was the domestic handball that was the world's first complete version of this game.
At the Olympics, most often the first places in handball are taken by Danes or athletes from Germany. Athletes from Denmark became winners of the Olympic Games three times (and it is the women's team), from Germany (later - the GDR) - twice, but in the piggy bank of handball players from the USSR (later - the CIS and Russia) - 6 gold medals.
A lefty can't play handball. Perhaps, moreover, he is quite capable of becoming an Olympic champion. A concrete example - Igor Vasiliev, who became the champion of the Olympic Games in 1992, in 1993 - the world champion, in 1994 - took the second place in the European Handball Championship.
In Russia, they don't like to play handball, especially women. Maybe this game is not as popular as, say, football or basketball. However, do not forget that it was the USSR national team that most often took first places at the Olympic Games. And the Soviet women's national team is the most titled in the history of handball - after all, the athletes won twice at the Olympics and three times at the world championships in this sport.
Draw in handball is common. Indeed, a draw is permissible in this game. However, if a tournament with a knockout is held, and the results are equal, one extra time is assigned or, if necessary, two halves, consisting of two periods of 5 minutes each with a one-minute break between them. If the competition in this case also leads to a draw, the teams take a penalty kick (5 throws from the 7-meter mark).
After the final whistle, the referee will not penalize the athletes. If, before or at the time of the final signal, there was a violation of the rules or unsportsmanlike behavior, the referee will punish the offending player even if the signal is given to end the half (game).
In handball, any field player can replace the goalkeeper and vice versa - the goalkeeper can act as a field player. This is true, but it should be remembered that the goalkeeper's uniform is different from that of the players of both teams and that of the opposing goalkeeper. Therefore, in the case of the aforementioned replacement, the player will have to change clothes first.
If there are less than five players of one of the teams on the handball court, the game automatically stops. No, even if there are fewer than five players on the court, the competition can continue. The decision to permanently stop the game is taken by the referees.